- Alm (S)
- Elm (E)
- Ulme (D)
- l´orme (F)
- Olmo (E)
Area of distribution
- Elm grows in Central Europe, the British Isles and in Caucasia.
In Finland there are two naturally growing, though rare, sort of elm.
- Mountain elm (Ulmus glabra) is a rare sort of wood in continental Finland. Fluttering elm (Ulmus laevis) grows naturally by flooding lakesides in Southern Finland.
- Mountain elm thrives in a nutritious, moist and clayey grove.
- Its’ habitats are warm hillsides in groves and luxuriant banks of creek.
- Mountain elm stands light shadow and it is not vulnerable to frost but it cracks easily when temperatures are below zero.
- Fluttering elm may grow 30 meters tall and the diameter of the base over one meter. Mountain elm grows 40 meters tall and three meters wide on the base.
- The foliage of elm grows upward as a wide, bushy and imposing crown.
- Because the wide roots are near the surface and it has a tap root the elm stands storms well.
- The trunk is often short and the boughs branch out already at 5 meters high.
- Because of their big size and handsome features the elms are popular avenue trees in the Middle Europe.
- Elm grows either as a solitary tree or small woods.
Elm reproduces normally from the boles because the seeds germinate poorly.
- A good quality elm has an upright trunk, has no branches on the base and the thickness at breast height is at least 35 cm.
Properties of timber
- The sapwood and heartwood of elm area very clearly separable from each other.
- The sapwood is light yellowy and the heartwood is brown and it weathers some on the effect of air.
- After drying the timber of elm is durable. The timber has to be dried slowly to avoid cleaves.
- The timber of elm is hard, heavy and tough and it stands rotten well.
- As a material the wood is very decorative and has strong patterns. It is used for instance in the veneer of furniture.
- The roots of elm give the most beautiful veneer.
- It is easy to work with and finish.
- Air dried timber weights 650 kg/m3.
The wood specimens have been surface treated as such:
- Left, water-based acrylic lacquer
- Center, no treatment
- Right, two component catalystlacquer or oil
- Elm is used for furniture, parquet, stairs and butt stocks.
- It is also the raw material for impressive decorative and utility articles.
- In the past elm was used for furniture, axle, pair of steps, mill-wheel and keel.